When a couple is thinking about making an LPA for their property & financial affairs it is quite common for them to want to appoint each other as their attorneys.
Often, they want to appoint each other as sole attorneys initially. While they may be happy for their children or other trusted people to act too, it is common that they only want them to act if the spouse becomes unable to. This is usually a sensible enough approach, but there is one small issue that clients should be made aware of. There can be difficulties if the property needs to be sold after an owner has lost capacity.
What is the issue?
Trusts are pervasive in English & Welsh law. While it is not something we tend to consider in our day to day life, it is a fact of land law that every property that is jointly held is held on a trust of land. The joint owners of the property hold the property as trustees, in most cases on trust for themselves either as joint tenants or tenants in common.
Where a property is held on a trust of land at least two trustees are required to give good receipt for any capital arising from its sale. This is where we face problems with joint owners of property appointing each other as their sole attorneys. Two distinct signatures are required on the transfer documents, so an attorney cannot sign both for themselves in their capacity as a trustee, and also for the incapacitated owner in their capacity as their attorney.
How is this resolved?
The attorney will be the continuing trustee as they are still a capable co-owner of the land. Where the attorney is a continuing trustee the Trustee Delegation Act 1999 allows them to appoint a new trustee to act with them solely for dealing with the property transfer. Once the property is held by two capable trustees it can be sold, as good receipt can now be given.
So, in reality it’s a minor nuisance and easily worked around but being faced with this issue unexpectedly as an attorney can certainly be daunting. If clients own their property jointly and wish to appoint each other as sole attorneys it is therefore best that they are made aware of this.
Of course, the easiest way to avoid this issue at all would be for them to consider naming an additional attorney to act alongside the other spouse. This way there would always be two separate trustees able to sign any transfer documents, as the joint owner could sign for themselves and the incapacitated owner’s other attorney could sign on their behalf. This avoids any panic or delays when it comes to selling the property after an owner has lost capacity.
Writing a will is something that is often put off, to be completed 'when you get round to it'.
Sadly, that is often too late.
It's never too early to be prepared, so why not be proactive and consolidate your wishes sooner rather than later?
However, you might be of the opinion that you don't need a will. After all, doesn't everything just pass to your spouse?
Not leaving a Will can have serious complications and result in serious problems for your family and loved ones.
Here are just a few of the reasons why you should stop putting off drafting a Will:
If you don't make a Will then on your death you will have died intestate. This can be as painful as it sounds for your loved ones who may suffer financial hardship and distress at a time when they least need it, whilst your affairs are sorted out.
If you do make a Will, then the legal process in dealing with your affairs will be much less complex. This will make things much less painful - vital when your loved ones will need all the help that they can get.
If you don't make a Will then you will have no control over who will inherit what you own. Intestacy rules will determine ultimately to whom your assets will pass, depending how much you own and which of your relatives (if any) is still living. Spouses may not receive everything and charities, friends and unmarried partners will definitely receive nothing.
If you do make a Will then you can name the beneficiaries (including charities and friends if you so wish) and you will know with certainty who will inherit from your efforts.
If you don't make a Will and you are a parent of young children, then you will have no control over who looks after them should anything happen to you. In such circumstances, the courts will appoint someone on your behalf - someone that you may not have chosen.
If you do make a Will then you can appoint guardians of your choice who will look after your children until they reach the age of eighteen.
If you don't make a Will then your estate may have to pay a charge of Inheritance Tax (IHT).
If you do make a Will you can distribute your assets in such a way that any IHT charge is minimised or even eliminated altogether.
If you don't make a Will then your family may have to employ professionals to sort out the mess that you leave behind. Their charges could mean that they become significant beneficiaries of your estate.
If you do make a Will your family will have clear directions on how to deal with your affairs and may not need to employ (and pay) professionals.
Making a will is easier than you think. It is never too early, but all too often left too late.
10 October 2020
The views expressed in this blog do not in any way constitute advice and are specific to the date noted. As time passes the facts can change and readers should consult their adviser for up to date advice on any matters covered within the blog. Invest Southwest offers an initial review, which is free of charge, however long it takes. From this we will be able to confirm how we can help and give you an opportunity to decide if you would like us to. Thereafter, we will provide you with detailed recommendations and exact costs. Please note that we promise not to levy any kind of fee unless we can demonstrate a benefit to you.